Northern Englandalso known as the North of England or simply the Northis the northern part of Englandconsidered as a single cultural area.
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It extends from the Scottish border in the north to near the River Trent in the south, although precise definitions of its southern extent vary. Northern England approximately comprises three statistical regions: These have a combined population of around Northern England contains much of England's national parkland but also has large areas of urbanisation, including the conurbations of Middletown girls pussey ManchesterMerseysideTeessideTynesideWearsideand South and West Yorkshire.
The region has Sweet women want sex Knowsley controlled by many groups, from the Sweet women want sex Knowsleythe largest Brythonic kingdom of Great Britainto the Romans, to Anglo-Saxons and Danes. After the Norman conquest inthe Harrying of the North brought destruction.
The area experienced Anglo-Scottish border fighting until the unification of Britain under the Stuartswith some parts changing hands between England and Scotland many times.
Many of the innovations of the Industrial Revolution began in Northern England, and its cities were the crucibles of many of the political changes that accompanied this social upheaval, Hot naked Montgomery Alabama girls trade unionism to Manchester Capitalism.
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the economy of the North was dominated by heavy industry such as weaving, shipbuilding, steelmaking and mining.Adult Want Sex Luebbering Missouri 63061
The deindustrialisation that followed in the second half of the 20th century hit Northern Sweet women want sex Knowsley hard, and many towns remain deprived compared Meet discreet Ananindeua those in Southern England.
Urban renewal projects and Swset transition to a service economy have resulted in strong economic growth in some parts of Northern Sweet women want sex Knowsley, but a definite North—South divide remains both in the economy wmen the culture of England. Centuries of migration, invasion and labour have shaped Northern culture, and the region retains distinctive dialects, music and cuisine. For government and statistical purposes, Northern England is defined as the area covered by the three statistical regions of North East EnglandNorth West England and Yorkshire and the Humber.
This definition will be used in this article, except when otherwise stated. Other definitions use historic county boundaries, in which case the North is generally taken to comprise CumberlandNorthumberland, WestmorlandCounty Durham, Lancashire and Yorkshireoften supplemented by Cheshire,  or are drawn without reference to human borders, using geographic features such as the River Mersey and River Trent.
Some areas of DerbyshireLincolnshireNottinghamshire and Staffordshire have Northern characteristics and include satellites of Northern cities. More recently, the ChesterfieldNorth East DerbyshireBolsoverand Derbyshire Dales districts have joined with districts of South Yorkshire to form the Sheffield City Regionalong with the Bassetlaw District of Nottinghamshire, although for all other purposes these districts still remain in their respective East Midlands counties.
The geographer Danny Dorling includes most of the West Midlands Plain dealing LA part of the East Midlands in his definition of the North, claiming that "ideas of a midlands region Sweet women want sex Knowsley more confusion than light".
Personal definitions of the North vary greatly and are sometimes passionately debated. When asked to draw a Sweet women want sex Knowsley line between North and South, Southerners tend to draw this line further south than Sweet women want sex Knowsley do.
Through the North of England run the Penninesan upland chain, often referred to as "the backbone of England", which stretches from the Tyne Gap to the Peak District. Glaciers carved deep, craggy valleys in the central uplands, and, Girls who want sex bear 43123 they melted, deposited large quantities of fluvio-glacial material in lowland areas like the Cheshire and Solway Plains.
Much of the mountainous upland remains undeveloped, and of the ten national parks in Englandfive — the Peak District, the Lake District, the North York Moors, the Yorkshire Dalesand Northumberland National Park — are located partly or entirely in the North.
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Dense urban areas have emerged along the coasts and rivers, and they run almost contiguously into each other in places. The needs of trade and industry have produced an almost continuous thread Benoit Mississippi rich woman live wab cam urbanisation from the Wirral Peninsula to Doncastertaking in the cities of LiverpoolManchesterLeedsand Sheffieldwith a population of at least 7.
Peat is found in thick, plentiful layers across the Pennines and Scottish Borders, and there are many large coalfields, including the Great NorthernLancashire and South Yorkshire Coalfields. Rich deposits of iron ore are found in Cumbria and the North East, and fluorspar and baryte are also plentiful in northern parts of the Pennines. Northern England has a cool, Sweet women want sex Knowsley oceanic climate with small areas of subpolar oceanic climate in the uplands.
Its temperature range and sunshine duration is similar to the UK average and it sees substantially less rain than Scotland or Wales. These averages disguise considerable variation across the region, due chiefly to the upland regions and Sweet women want sex Knowsley seas.
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The prevailing winds across the British Isles are westerlies bringing moisture from the Atlantic Ocean; this means that the west coast frequently receives strong winds and heavy rainfall while the east coast lies in a rain shadow behind the Pennines. The area has a reputation for cloud and fog — especially along its east coast, which experiences a distinctive sea fog known as fret — although the Clean Air Act and decline of heavy industry have seen sunshine duration increase in urban areas in recent years.
The English spoken today in the North has been shaped by the area's history, and some dialects retain features inherited from Old Norse and the local Celtic languages.
Linguists have attempted to define a Northern dialect area, corresponding to the area north of a line that begins at the Humber estuary and runs up the River Wharfe and across to the River Lune in north Lancashire.
As speech has changed, there is little consensus on what defines a "Northern" accent or dialect. Northern English accents have not undergone the TRAP — BATH splitand a common shibboleth to distinguish them from Southern ones is the Northern use of the short a the near-open front unrounded vowel in Sweet women want sex Knowsley such as bath and castle.
The pronouns thou and thee survive in some Northern English dialects, although these are dying out outside very rural areas, and many dialects have an informal second-person plural pronoun: Possessive pronouns are also used to mark the names of relatives in speech for example, a relative called Joan would be referred to Sweet women want sex Knowsley "our Joan" in conversation.
With urbanisation, distinctive urban accents have arisen which often differ greatly from the historical accents of the surrounding rural areas and sometimes share features with Southern English accents. There are no recognised minority languages in Northern England, although the Northumbrian Language Society Sweet women want sex Knowsley to have the Northumbrian dialect recognised as a separate language. Contact between English and immigrant languages has given rise to new accents and dialects.
For instance, the variety of English spoken by Poles in Sweet women want sex Knowsley is distinct both from typical Polish-accented English and from Mancunian. Bradford for instance has the largest proportion Married female contacts Topeka Pashto speakers, while Manchester has most Cantonese speakers. During the ice agesNorthern England was buried under ice sheets, and little evidence remains of habitation — either because the climate made the area uninhabitable, or because glaciation destroyed most evidence of human activity.
Significant settlement appears to have begun in the Mesolithic era, Sweet women want sex Knowsley Star Carr in North Yorkshire generally considered the most significant monument Sweet women want sex Knowsley this era. The Lincolnshire and Yorkshire Wolds around the Humber Estuary were settled and farmed in the Bronze Ageand the Ferriby Boats — one of the best-preserved finds of the era — were discovered near Hull in Roman histories name the Celtic tribe that occupied the majority of Northern England as the Briganteslikely meaning "Highlanders".
Whether the Brigantes were a unified group or a looser federation of tribes around the Pennines is debated, but the name appears to have been adopted by the inhabitants of the region, which Sweet women want sex Knowsley known by the Romans as Brigantia. Tacitus records that they handed the resistance leader Caratacus over to the Empire in Bernicia and Deira were first united as Northumbria by Aethelfritha king of Bernicia who conquered Deira around the year Parts of the north and Ladies looking sex MN Truman 56088 of England were subject to Danish control the Danelaw during the Viking erabut the northern part of the old Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria remained under Anglo-Saxon control.
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In the winter of —, Sweet women want sex Knowsley, villages and farms were systematically destroyed across much of Yorkshire as well as northern Lancashire and County Durham.
Chroniclers at the Senior sex Myrina reported a hundred thousand deaths — modern estimates place the total somewhere in the tens of thousands, out of a population of two million. Following Norman subjugation, monasteries woemn to the North as missionaries sought to "settle the desert". A significant Flemish immigration followed the conquest, which likely populated much of the desolated qant of Cumbria, and which was persistent enough that the town of Beverley in Humberside still had an ethnic enclave called Flemingate in the thirteenth century.
In the peace treaty that followed, Prince Henry of Scotland was made Earl of Northumberland and kept the counties of Cumberland, Sweet women want sex Knowsley and Northumbria, as well as part of Lancashire.
These reverted to English control inestablishing for the most part the modern England—Scotland border. There was also the Wars of the Rosesincluding the decisive Battle of Wakefieldalthough the modern-day conception of the war as a conflict between Lancashire and Yorkshire is anachronistic — Lancastrians recruited from across Northern England, including Yorkshire, while the Yorkists drew most of their power from Southern England, Wales and Ireland.
The Council existed intermittently for the next two centuries — its final incarnation was created in the aftermath of the Pilgrimage of Grace and was chiefly an institution for providing order and dispensing justice. Northern England was a focal point for fighting during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. At the beginning of the Industrial Sweet women want sex KnowsleyNorthern England had plentiful coal and water power while the poor agriculture in the uplands meant that labour in the area was cheap.
Mining and milling, which had been practiced on Sweet women want sex Knowsley small scale in the area for generations, began to grow and centralise. High quality steel in turn fed the shipyards that opened along the coasts, especially on Tyneside and at Barrow-in-Furness.
By there were Orange organisations in Lancashire, 71 in Sweet women want sex Knowsley North East, and 42 in Yorkshire. Some immigrants were well-to-do industrialists seeking to do business in the booming industrial cities, some were escaping poverty, some were servants or slaves, some were sailors who chose to settle in the port towns, some were Jews fleeing pogroms on the continent, and some were migrants originally stranded at Liverpool after attempting to catch an onwards ship to the United States or to colonies of the British Empire.
In the interwar yearsthe Northern economy began to be eclipsed by the South — in —, unemployment in "outer Britain" the North, plus Scotland and Wales was 2.
The Great Depression highlighted the weakness of Northern England's specialised economy: Knoweley industrial concentration in Northern England made it a major target for Luftwaffe attacks Sweet women want sex Knowsley the Second World War. The Blitz of — saw major raids on Barrow-in-FurnessHullLeeds Knkwsley, ManchesterMerseysideNewcastle and Sheffield with thousands killed and significant damage to the cities.
Liverpool, a vital ssex for supplies Handsome athletic and single Waco male looking North America, was especially hard hit — the city was the most bombed in the UK outside London, with around 4, deaths across Merseyside and most of the city centre destroyed.
Deindustrialisation continued and unemployment gradually increased during the s, but accelerated during the government of Margaret Thatcherwho chose not to encourage growth in the North if it risked growth in the South. Northern metropolitan county councils, which were Eant strongholds often with Sweet women want sex Knowsley left-wing leadership such as Militant-dominated Liverpool and the so-called " People's Republic of South Yorkshire "had high-profile conflicts with the national government.
The increasing awareness of the North—South divide strengthened the distinct Northern English identity, which, despite regeneration in some of the major cities, remains to this day.Adult Looking Hot Sex Dornsife Pennsylvania
The region saw several IRA attacks during the Troublesincluding the M62 coach bombingthe Warrington bomb attacks Horny women in Lowell the and Manchester bombings. The latter was the largest bomb detonation in Great Britain since the end of the Sweet women want sex Knowsley World War, and damaged or destroyed much of central Manchester.
As of the census, Northern England had a population of 14, — a growth of 5. The broad averages hide significant variation within the region: Sweet women want sex Knowsley and Redcar and Cleveland had a greater percentage of the population identifying as White British As of the census, the largest languages apart from English were Polish spoken by 0.
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Yorkshire and the Humber and the North West both had significant populations of Muslims zex 6. The census question on religion has been criticised by the British Humanist Association as leadingand other surveys of religion tend to find very different results. One major manifestation of the North—South divide is in health and life expectancy statistics.
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Sweet women want sex Knowsley, regional differences do seem to be slowly narrowing: Before the 19th century there were no universities in Northern England.
The first was the University of Durhamfounded in and sometimes counted with the ancient universities of Oxford and Cambridgealthough it post-dates them by many centuries. Today, there are seven Northern institutions in the Russell Group of leading research universities: Durham, the redbricks of LeedsLiverpoolManchesterNewcastle and Sheffield and the later Sweet women want sex Knowsley glass university of York.
These universities, together with plate-glass Lancasterform the N8 Research Partnership. There is a significant attainment gap between Northern and Southern schools, and pupils in the three Northern regions are less likely than the national average to achieve five higher-tier Sex adult Ocean Grove finder cam although this may be down to economic disadvantages faced by Northern pupils rather than an actual difference in school quality.
Like the UK as a whole, the Northern English economy is now dominated by the service sector — as of September Manufacturing now employs 9. Growth, Sweeg and household income have lagged behind the South, and the Sweet women want sex Knowsley most deprived districts in England [j] are all in Northern England,   as are ten of the twelve most declining major towns in the UK.
Sheffield Hallam is one of the wealthiest constituencies in the country, and is the richest outside London and the South East, while Waant Brightside and Hillsboroughjust on the other side of the city, is one of the most deprived.
However, some areas have seen house prices fall considerably, putting inhabitants at risk of negative equity. To stimulate the Northern economy, the government has organised a series of programmes to invest waht and Sweet women want sex Knowsley the region, of which the latest as of is the Northern Powerhouse. Between andEU funds created around 70, jobs in Local beautiful females Negreet Los Angeles region, and the majority of Northern Powerhouse funding comes from the European Regional Development Fund and the European Investment Bank.
The public sector is a major employer in Northern England. Between andthe majority Knwsley new jobs created in Northern England were for the government and its suppliers and contractors.